Home Journals The Relationship between Diabetes Mellitus and COVID-19 Prognosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study...

The Relationship between Diabetes Mellitus and COVID-19 Prognosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Wuhan, China

Abstract

Background

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease, first appeared in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread throughout the world. We aimed to understand the relationship between diabetes mellitus and the prognosis of COVID-19.

Methods

Demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiologic, treatments, complications, and clinical outcomes data were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between diabetes (n=84) and non-diabetes (n=500) groups. Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox analysis were applied to determine the risk factors for the prognosis of COVID-19.

Results

Compared to non-diabetic patients, diabetic patients had higher levels of neutrophils (p = 0.014), c-reactive protein (p = 0.008), procalcitonin (p < 0.01), and D-dimer (p = 0.033), and lower levels of lymphocytes (p = 0.032) and albumin (p = 0.035). Furthermore, diabetic patients had a significant higher incidence of bilateral pneumonia (86.9%, p = 0.020). In terms of complications and clinical outcomes, the incidence of respiratory failure (36.9% vs. 24.2%, p = 0.022), acute cardiac injury (47.4% vs. 21.2%, p < 0.01) and death (20.2% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.001) in the diabetes group was significantly higher than that in non-diabetes group. Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that COVID-19 patients with diabetes had a shorter overall survival time. Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that diabetes (HR 2.180, p = 0.031) was an independent risk factor for COVID-19 prognosis. In subgroup analysis, we divided diabetic patients into insulin required and non-insulin required groups according to whether they needed insulin, and found that diabetic patients requiring insulin may have a higher risk of disease progression and worse prognosis after the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Conclusions

Diabetes is an independent risk factor for the prognosis of COVID-19. More attention should be paid to the prevention and treatment for diabetic patients, especially those who require insulin therapy.

Introduction

In December 2019, an acute infectious pneumonia of unknown cause broke out in Wuhan, and quickly spread throughout the world.

  • Huang C
  • Wang Y
  • Li X
  • et al.
Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China.